D-dimer Normal Values

 

 D-dimer normal values refer to the normal range of D-dimer in the blood stream. People whose D-dimer levels are within the normal range will not likely face life-threatening situations that will result from abnormal D-dimer levels. Having normal D-dimer values are indicative that the body’s healing system by means of blood clotting is doing well.

The only way to determine whether an individual hasnormal levels of D-dimer in the blood stream is through the D-dimer test. The examination is often required by physicians to assess the chances of active formation of blood clots of an individual. It is also helpful in diagnosing life-threatening diseases due to reduced capability of blood clotting.

 What is D-dimer?

D-dimer normal values represent a well-functioning blood clotting system. The D-dimer refers to the small fragments of protein, called fibrin that only appears in the blood following fibrinolysis which destroys the blood clot. D-dimer is hardly noticed under normal conditions since it is only produced after a blood clot has formed and has already been broken down. It is named D-dimer because it is composed of two cross-linked D fragments of fibrinogen protein.

How important is it to maintain D-dimer normal values?

D-dimer normal values are biomarkers that the body’s coagulation process is not hampered with and the probability of thrombosis is lowered. On the other hand, a positive or elevated D-dimer result is an indication of thromboembolic disease and other blood disorders. Doctors often conduct follow up diagnostic tests to patients whose D-dimer values are elevated to rule out or confirm the presence of major health issues.

Standard range for D-dimer normal values?

The normal amounts for D-dimer in the blood should be around 0.5 mg/l of blood or 500 ng/ml of blood. A normal D-dimer test result will reveal a negative result, which indicates that thrombosis has not occurred. People who yield negative or normal D-dimer test results are most likely not suffering from any acute medical condition or disorder that can trigger abnormal blood clotting formation and break down. D-dimer normal values are a good indication that the treatment given to a patient suffering from disseminated intravascular coagulation is working; while an elevated D-dimer value signifies the opposite.

Abnormal D-dimer values

Abnormal D-dimer values are indicators of acute diseases or medical conditions that call for immediate action. The physician may request for a series of tests such as CT scan, lung scintigraphy or ultrasound of the leg veins to check if there indeed a thrombus that occurred. An abnormal D-dimer value can be a red flag for DIC (or disseminated intravascular coagulation) and PE (or pulmonary embolism).

However, there are certain conditions that affect the D-dimer results giving false positive or false negative readings.

False positive D-dimer results may happen due to:

  • Pregnancy
  • Malignancy
  • Liver Diseases
  • Inflammation
  • Trauma
  • Infection
  • Recent surgery
  • High rheumatoid factor
  • Advanced age
  • High lipemia, bilirubin and triglycerides

False negative D-dimer values can occur because of the following factors:

  • Presence of anti-coagulation agents
  • Delayed D-dimer testing
  • Testing too early

When do D-dimer values become abnormal?

D-dimer normal values can go awry when there is excess clotting and other medical conditions such as:

  • Deep vein thrombosis (DVT)
  • Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC)
  • Pulmonary Embolism (PE)

But not all abnormal D-dimer values are due to abnormal clotting.  Values beyond the normal range could also be due to:

  • Pregnancy
  • Heart disease
  • Liver disease
  • Certain cancers
  • Infection
  • Trauma
  • Recent surgery
  • Advanced age
  • High rheumatoid factor

What are the manifestations of abnormal D-dimer values?

People with abnormal D-dimer values show signs and symptoms differently, depending on the underlying cause.

If it is caused by pulmonary embolism, the patient may experience:

  • Rapid heart beat
  • Lung-related chest pain
  • Hemoptysis
  • Coughing
  • Blood stained sputum
  • Breathing difficulty

If the abnormal level is caused by deep vein thrombosis, the patient will show signs and symptoms of:

  • Leg discoloration
  • Edema
  • Leg swelling
  • Tenderness or leg pain

If it is caused by disseminated intravascular coagulation, the patient will suffer from:

  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Bleeding gums, bowels, bladder, nose and mouth
  • Seizures
  • Abdominal pain
  • Decreased urine

 How to maintain D-dimer normal values

Maintaining D-dimer values within the normal range involves treating the underlying cause. For instance, if the abnormal D-dimer level is due to pulmonary embolism, it may be treated with anticoagulants, clot removal, clot dissolvers, vein filter and surgery. If it is caused by deep vein thrombosis, management may involve compression stockings, filters, clot busters and blood thinners to regain the normal level. If the abnormal D-dimer values are due to disseminated intravascular coagulation, it may be treated with anticoagulant therapy, adjunctive treatment method and restoration of anticoagulant passageway.

D-dimer normal values are biomarkers of an unobstructed blood clotting system. Abnormal D-dimer values are a strong indication of problematic blood clotting, though certain conditions and diseases may also increase the levels of D-dimer in the system. The treatment is primarily based on the underlying cause.

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